Green Hotel: Working with Climate
Green Architecture, sustainable architecture means designing with nature in an environmentally responsible way as well as a positively-contributing way. So, the green design as applied in ecology remains relevant to the development of global systems of green politics, economics, physical planning and social systems.
Six principles, in which together could build into a green architecture are noted as follows:
1. Conserving energy,
2. Working with climate,
3. Minimizing new resources,
4. Respect for user,
5. Respect for site, and
6. Holism (holistic approach).
Based on the above six-principles, one remarkable building, located at Jl. Basuki Rahmat, Surabaya – surrounded by high-rise modern-architecture buildings –, named after GREEN HOTEL, is presented to give different nuances and becoming icon for the surrounding area.
The underlining philosophy for this buidling was given the reason that Surabaya has an extreme hot and humid climate, both during the afternoon and in the evening, with the highest air temperature reaching out to 32˚C and the lowest of 24.2˚C complemented with a relative humidity at above 70%. The temperature in a year hovers between 32.8˚C (max.) and 24.2˚C (min.) during the afternoon and between 24.2˚C (max.) and 19.9˚C (min.) during evening. This number is still beyond the comfortable temperature limit for human daily activities, which is around 25.4°C – 28.9°C.
Given the above climate facts, we need to rely upon air circulation to reach comfortable building thermal. One of the efforts that can be done is to form the building in cylinder shape as one of the effective forms for maximum air circulation.
Other effort to achieve comfort level is by using “shading device”, which considers lighting level inside the building. The shading effect will differ on each month. This eventually decreases the amount of heat going into the buidling, so the cooling process will be more efficient. Furthermore, plants can be added to protect from cold, hot and dusty air and to keep the balance of air temperature. The placement of “core” at the hottest areas (east and west) is intended to protect the heat caught by the buidling to go entirely inside the building. The void optimization of the rounded shape building will create air circulation and natural lighting that will certainly help in energy saving. This void will be able to reduce the dependency to the electricity, especially during morning and afternoon
This building concept is expected to be a climate adaptive building, therefore a low energy buidling can be eventually realized.
STATEMENT AND SELF-ASSESMENT
1. QUANTUM CHANGE AND TRANSFERABILITY
GREEN HOTEL WORKING WITH CLIMATE buidling concept is deliberately presented in business center (an area full of high-rise buildings and minimum in green area) with the intention of becoming “green space” for the area. The Green Hotel, in the concept, tries to change “macro climate” into “indoor climate” which is comfortable for the user, without usage of mechanical electric to minimize the use of energy.
2. ETHICAL STANDARDS AND SOCIAL EQUITY
Presenting a green architecture or sustainable building in the surrounding area – business center, offices and malls – is a prominent effort to create a new natural way of living habit, becoming a sustainable comfortable living from now and then. This attempt can also be felt by surrounding areas with pedestrian in the entrance, therefore the community that is not directly using the hotel can use the green space outside the building.
3. ECOLOGICAL QUALITY AND ENERGY CONSERVATION
The utilization of tropical climate such as in Surabaya with the lattiude of -7.2 is an attempt to achieve energy conservation. The concept used is as follows:
a. The usage of “layer” as “shading device”, with a transparent materials to protect the users from the heat of the sunshine.
b. The usage of the cylinder shape and usage of “void”, which is an adaptive shape for cathcing the airflow and maximizing the natural daylight.
The “green space” in 6ª floor, with the intention of allowing the air coming in to maximize heat elimination inside the building
4. ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND COMPATIBILITY
Operational cost saving can be generated from the following aspects:
a. The usage of solar cell to minimze the electricty consumption.
b. The creation of window with cross-ventilation system in order to produce a better air circulation, to remove the heat inside the building, and to reduce the usage of air conditioning system.
5. CONTEXTUAL AND AESTHETIC IMPACT
Green Hotel working with climate is deliberately built by preliminary analisis of surrounding climate, by maximizing the usage of natural resources (wind and sun) and the analysis performed on the air temperature, relative humidity, rain and wind level in the year. Based on the analysis, the shape of building harmonizes with surrounding situations.
The tropical climate of Surabaya needs a maximum level of air flow, so that the buidling uses cylinder shape with 2 types of shading to answer the climate challenges and harmony without abandoning the esthetic. This condition, supported by vertical landscaping is intended to prevent the heat, wind and dust entering directly to the building which will eventually impact to the thermal comfortability of the users.
On the other hand, the architecture combinations and architecture space (void) will result in harmonious differences, dynamic and resulting in a finished architecture object.